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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-26

Association between Smoking, Body Mass Index, and Periodontal Disease: A Case-Control Study

Faculty of Dentistry, SEGi University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Shelly Arora
Faculty of Dentistry, SEGi University, No. 9, Jalan Teknologi, Taman Sains, Kota Damansara, Petaling Jaya, Selangor
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2393-8692.184731

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Introduction: Smoking and obesity are associated with chronic periodontal disease. Chronic periodontal disease has been suggested to be an associated risk factor for obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on body mass index (BMI) and periodontal status of patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 134 subjects (67 smokers and 67 nonsmokers) aged between 24 and 45 years were included in the study. Periodontal status was categorized into healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis (mild, moderate, and severe, and into localized and generalized). BMI was calculated using height and weight of the patients. A simple descriptive statistics was obtained by analyzing the collected data using MedCalc 15.4. Results: The results indicated that nonsmokers have higher BMI (mean = 23.4 kg/cm 2 , 95% confidence interval [CI] = 22.7-24) as compared to smokers (mean = 21.1 kg/cm 2 , 95% CI = 20.7-21.6). Among 134 subjects, 49 were suffering from chronic periodontitis. People in the overweight category were 26. Subjects who were both overweight and suffering from chronic periodontitis were only 6% (n = 8). Conclusions: The study found an association between periodontal disease and smoking, but no association between obesity and periodontal disease was noticed. Studies with larger sample size and patients from obesity clinics should be studied.

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