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REVIEW ARTICLES
Cytokines and Other Inflammatory Mediators in Periodontal Health and Disease
Harpreet Singh Grover, Rohit Saini, Pearl Bhardwaj, Amit Bhardwaj
January-June 2016, 2(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.184728  
Cytokines and selective inflammatory mediators play crucial roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β are thought to play important roles in modulating the proliferation and migration of structural cells in the periodontium. These biomolecules have a range of overlapping functions to help engage and control immune and inflammatory responses.
  3,521 3,180 1
CASE REPORTS
A Versatile Spring Design for Management of Impacted Teeth in Anterior Arch
Sandeep Sharma, Neil David Andrade, Vivek P Soni
January-June 2015, 1(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.158906  
A new orthodontic spring design that can be employed in the narrow labial vestibule to provide traction force for movement of impacted teeth in the anterior arch is described. The spring is fabricated at chairside in TMA wire of 0.016 × 0.022″ or 0.017 × 0.025″ size. The method for deployment of this spring design is illustrated with a case report of management of horizontally impacted maxillary central incisor in an 18-year-old patient. The spring design was able to deliver variable force vectors that are customarily required to move impacted teeth from a horizontal to vertical orientation.
  3,460 220 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Over-the-counter Dental Products: Need for Regulation
Daniel Devaprakash Dicksit, Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra, Omar Tawfiq, CG Kalyan
July-December 2015, 1(2):44-47
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.172020  
Over-the-counter, (OTC) dental products are oral care products sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional. In the recent years, there is an increase in a number of the OTC products which make false claims and without sound scientific evidence. In many developed countries, OTC products are regulated by federal regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration and also by the countries professional dental organizations such as the American Dental Association (ADA). ADA provides a seal of approval to those products, however, in many developing countries; the OTC dental products are not regulated due to lax rules. Vendors use this opportunity and are marketing OTC products without sound scientific evidence. While in the some developed countries of Northern America professional bodies provide with their seal of approval for many OTC products. This will help individuals to make their choice. This review paper presents an overview of OTC dental products with questionable scientific evidence and their effects on the oral health. The main purpose of the review is to highlight the need for regulation in the sale of these OTC dental products.
  3,121 117 -
CASE REPORTS
Tunnel Preparation
Shivlal L Vishnoi, Mangesh B Phadnaik, Sarath Chandran, Brinda Bishnoi
January-June 2015, 1(1):33-36
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.158909  
Treatment and management of teeth with furcation involvement is one of the most challenging problems confronting general dentist. In advanced furcation involvement, the tunnel preparation procedure is preferable to extraction when other treatments are precluded for financial or other reasons. Certain technical problems, such as gaining access for oral hygiene procedures on posterior molars, are obvious; this heroic technique could not be considered as a regular treatment modality for any tooth or any patient. This treatment was done for a 38-year-old female patient in good general health. After raising a full thickness flap on the mandibular left side of the mouth, the furcation of tooth #36 was widened by a #2 round bur and bone file. Osteoplasty continued by bur, file, and chisel until enough space was created for interdental brush use to control dental plaque. Flap was placed apically and sutured. Prosthodontic treatment was done 4 months after the periodontal therapy. After 1-year, the treated tooth is still functioning in the mouth of the patient. We are satisfied with the result of treatment.
  2,836 122 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Bite mark analysis: Chasing the bite!
Rakhee Modak, Sandhya Tamgadge, Amit Mhapuskar, Manjula Hebbale, N Vasantha Vijayarabhavan
July-December 2016, 2(2):61-66
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.196091  
In the recent years, numbers of suspected bite mark cases examined by forensic odontologist are increasing. Human bite mark analysis is most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry, involving identification of assailant by comparing record of their dentition with record of bite mark left on a victim. Like fingerprints and DNA, bite marks are unique to individual such as distance and angles between teeth, missing, and teeth fillings. This type of impression evidence can be left in the skin of a victim and also in food, chewing gums, pens, pencil, etc., In some crimes, bite mark evidence is the only evidence on which conviction has been achieved, particularly alleged rape and child abuse cases. The current protocol for collection, management, preservation analysis, and interpretation of evidences should be employed if information is to be obtained for the court. The aim of this article is to give brief overview of bite mark analysis, its clinical applications, and limitations.
  2,627 198 -
Periodontal considerations during orthodontic treatment
Suma Shekar, A Bhagyalakshmi, BR Chandrashekar, BS Avinash
January-June 2017, 3(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_25_17  
Orthodontic treatment aims at providing an acceptable functional and esthetic occlusion. Tooth movements are strongly related to interactions of teeth with their supportive periodontal tissues. In recent years, due to the increased number of adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment, orthodontists frequently face patients with periodontal problems. Esthetic considerations, such as uneven gingival margins or functional problems resulting from inflammatory periodontal diseases, should be considered in the orthodontic treatment planning. The purpose of this article is to provide a dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics and also to highlight the orthodontics and periodontics interface in clinical practice for optimized treatment outcomes.
  2,426 253 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical Evaluation of Caries Removal in Primary Teeth Using Carie-care and SmartPrep Burs: An In vivo Study
Pooja Ravindra Shivasharan, A Katge Farhin, Mayur Manohar Wakpanjar, Ashveeta Shetty
January-June 2016, 2(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.184732  
Background: Ultra conservative caries removal now has become an integral part of Minimal Invasive Dentistry. The main objective of deep caries removal is to conserve the tooth structure as well to maintain the integrity of pulpal health. Aim: To evaluate clinically the efficiency of caries removal using Carie-Care compared to the SmartPrep burs for complete caries excavation. Materials and Methods: Split mouth study was done in 64 children where caries excavation was done using Carie-Care on one side and Smart burs on the other side. The parameters assessed were complete caries excavation, pain reaction, need for local anesthesia and mean time required. Results: The differences between complete caries excavation, pain reaction and need for local anesthesia using both the techniques were statistically insignificant. Whereas the time taken for caries removal using Carie-Care was significantly less than Smart burs (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Both the techniques can be used effectively for caries excavation in primary teeth.
  2,249 275 -
CASE REPORTS
Fabrication of cast post and core by a modified indirect procedure and postcementation using a novel technique
Adiba Shaikh, Lalitagauri Mandke, Leena Padhye
July-December 2017, 3(2):91-95
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_43_17  
The restoration of endodontically treated pulpless teeth is a challenging dental procedure. Post and core is indicated in cases of extensive coronal tooth destruction where additional retention is required. The post is used to retain a core that can be used to retain definitive prosthesis. The choice between using a cast post and a prefabricated post depends on multiple factors such as canal configuration and remaining tooth structure. It has been said that if a canal requires extensive preparation, a well-adapted cast post and core will be more retentive than a prefabricated post that does not match the canal configuration. The cast post and core is fitted to the prepared root canal space and designed to resist torsional forces. However, one drawback of cast post is its tedious and time-consuming wax pattern technique. In this case report, we have used a time saving modified indirect technique for fabricating cast post and core, without the use of any reinforcement, no wax, no pattern resin but only rubber base impression material along with a novel technique of cementation, which utilizes a modified syringe with needle to facilitate even distribution of luting cement within the canal.
  2,304 204 -
Salivary Duct Cyst
Manu Gupta, Aarti Mahajan, Manish Gupta
July-December 2015, 1(2):79-81
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.172043  
Salivary duct cyst is the rare nonneoplastic lesion of the salivary gland. Although most authors describe salivary duct cyst and mucocele as one entity, we are describing them separately because of different histopathological features. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. This article reports a case of salivary duct cyst in a 13-year-old male child in the parotid gland duct.
  2,312 72 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Anti-tobacco Messages on Tobacco Products in India: Do They Really Hit the Mark?
Srikrishna Sulgodu Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra
January-June 2015, 1(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.158900  
The Indian Government has recently introduced various fiscal and nonfiscal measures for tobacco control, including pictorial health warnings on tobacco packaging. Health warnings on tobacco products are arguably the most cost-effective tool for educating on the health risks of tobacco use. However, interventions are effective upon being transferred from one setting to another with appropriate adjustment to the local context. Authors argue that there is a need to strengthen and target the health messages in a better way to ensure that the warnings reach all smokers, including those buying loose cigarettes/bidis. Any measures that make anti-tobacco messages more meaningful in the Indian context will lead to significant contributions towards the fight against tobacco.
  2,237 147 -
CASE REPORTS
Esthetic management of a recurrent gingival fibroma
Sue Ann Loe, Vivek Vijay Gupta, Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra
July-December 2016, 2(2):113-116
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.196154  
Peripheral reactive lesions of gingiva are common lesions of the oral cavity that dentists come across in daily life. Among these are focal fibrous hyperplasia, pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, and peripheral ossifying fibroma. Localized irritation fibroma is a gingival growth, usually arising from interdental papilla due to the presence of some chronic irritation due to dental calculus or other iatrogenic factors. This article reports a case of a 39-year-old male with a recurrent irritation fibroma in the maxillary anterior gingiva treated by excision. The presence of growth in the esthetic maxillary anterior segment and the possibility of unesthetic defect due to excision of the growth have been discussed. The importance of treating the chronic infectious irritational factor and regular follow-up to prevent long-term recurrence of the growth has been discussed.
  2,253 65 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of Temperature Rise on Periodontal Tissue During Endodontic Treatment: An In Vitro Study
Anilkumar Chauhan, Vimala Nilker, Lalitagauri P Mandke
July-December 2015, 1(2):66-71
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.172038  
Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of temperature rise on a single rooted tooth during biomechanical tooth preparation, obturation and root canal preparation for radicular post. Materials and Methods: Forty-five extracted human mandibular premolars with a single canal, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were stored in saline. Access cavity was prepared with endo access bur and pulp extirpations were done. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups of 9 teeth each. In group 1 and group 2 cleaning and shaping of the root canal was done using protaper file system and Hyflex system respectively. In group 3 and 4 obturation was done using Step-One obturation system and Calamus Dual respectively. In group 5 post space preparation was done using peeso reamers. Each sample tooth was embedded in alginate contained in Eppendorf tube. Tooth was placed in water bath with the two thermocouples attached at the apical and middle third which was in turn attached to thermometer. The rise in temperature was noted at the desired level and statistical analysis was done. Results and Conclusion: The mean temperature rise at the middle third for group 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was 0.4°C, 0.15°C, 1.80°C,10.33°C, 9.46°C respectively. The mean temperature rise at the apical third for group 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 was 0.08°C, 0.08°C, 1.20°C, 6.91°C, 6.4°C respectively. ANOVA showed significant difference in mean temperatures of different methods. post hoc test comparison using Duncan's test revealed maximum rise in temperature during obturation using Calamus dual (Group 4).
  1,979 154 1
Normative Soft Palate Dimensions and Morphology in a Subset of Indian Population: A Digital Cephalometric Study
Vasavi Krishnamurthy Santosh, Pooja Singh, Sandeep S Pagare
July-December 2015, 1(2):48-51
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.172022  
Background: The variations in the morphology of the soft palate in normal patients help to establish the variations in morphology in various diseases. The classification system and statistical findings help to research velopharyngeal closure in cleft palate individuals and etiological study of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and other conditions. The aim of our study was to investigate the variations in the velar morphology and to analyze the variations of length and density of the soft palate. Materials and Methods: In this study, a sample of 100 normal digital lateral cephalograms was analyzed for the variations in morphology of the soft palate and evaluated for analysis of length and density of the soft palate. Results: The morphology of the soft palate showed seven different morphological types. There was a significant difference in length of the soft palate between preadult and adult age groups. Males showed significantly longer and denser soft palate than the females. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in length of the soft palate between preadult and adult age groups. Males showed signifi cantly longer and denser soft palate than the females
  1,939 131 -
An Assessment System for the Consequences of Untreated Dental Caries
V Anil Dev Dutt, V Raja Sekhar, Kondala Rao Boddeda
July-December 2015, 1(2):62-65
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.172034  
Aims and Objectives: To assess the prevalence of caries experience using decay-missing-filled teeth (DMFT)/decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft) index and severity of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (PUFA/pufa index) in the age groups of 6, 12, and 15 years in urban and rural school going children of Visakhapatnam District. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 689 rural and urban school going children of Visakhapatnam District with the age groups of 6, 12, and 15 years were randomly selected. Intra oral examination was carried out to assess dental caries experience using the World Health Organization criteria. For data collection, DMFT/deft and PUFA/pufa index were used and data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The mean prevalence of caries (DMFT + deft > 0) in rural: 37.37% and urban: 26.28%, and the mean prevalence of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (PUFA + pufa > 0) in rural: 11.9% and urban: 10.7%. The "untreated caries, PUFA ratio" for 6 years children was found to be 53.33% in rural and 50% in urban, for 12 years children was found to be 41.05% and 16.43%, whereas for 15 years it is 15% and 17.54% in rural and urban children, respectively. Conclusion: The study showed that the prevalence of clinical consequence of the untreated dental caries is high in the rural children of age groups 6 and 12. Hence, the use of PUFA/pufa index as a compliment to the classical caries indices can address the neglected problem of untreated caries and its consequences. Furthermore, PUFA/pufa data may be used for planning, monitoring, and evaluating the treatment plan by the health care providers.
  1,891 168 -
Comparative evaluation of remineralization efficacy of GC tooth mousse plus and enafix on artificially demineralized enamel surface: An in vitro study
Vandana Gade
July-December 2016, 2(2):67-71
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.196097  
Background: The most common dental disease facing the human race is dental caries. For caries, management of early lesions, prevention of initiation, and interruption of progression are desirable. Remineralization is an effective way of preventive management of caries. Aim: To evaluate remineralization efficacy of two different remineralizing agents. Materials and Methods: Forty enamel samples were taken, and they were divided into four groups (n = 10). Demineralization was carried out with Groups A, B, and C. Remineralization was carried out with Groups A and B for 7 continuous days using casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) and calcium sucrose phosphate (CaSP). Group D was kept as positive control with intact enamel without any surface treatment, whereas Group C was kept as negative control with surface demineralization of enamel. Microhardness testing was done using Vickers microhardness tester after 7-day remineralization cycle. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests were performed. Results: Microhardness of CaSP and CPP-ACPF was comparable. Conclusion: Both remineralizing agents showed surface remineralization.
  1,828 216 -
CASE REPORTS
Asymmetric extractions for an asymmetric malocclusion
Christopher Lawrence Tan Soon Lee, Kirti Saxena
July-December 2016, 2(2):110-112
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.196151  
Some patients with Class II subdivision malocclusions have Class I characteristics on one side and Class II characteristics on the other. The resulting asymmetric occlusal relationship complicates orthodontic treatment. Traditionally, four premolars are extracted in such cases to achieve a bilateral Class I molar relation which needs patient compliance with the use of Class II elastics. The present case report shows one such Class II subdivision malocclusion case which was treated by asymmetric extractions. This approach is independent of the patient compliance and saved one premolar, with no compromise in dental occlusion or esthetics.
  1,809 228 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diabetes Mellitus and Oral Cancer: Are They Connected?
Manu Prasad Sen, Nandita Shenoy, Ashok K Shenoy, Prabha Adhikari, Junaid Ahmed, Aruna Muralidhar Yadiyal
January-June 2015, 1(1):4-6
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.158901  
Introduction: Malignant neoplasm is a major cause of death in developed countries, and its incidence continues to grow, placing a heavy burden on the community. Diabetes mellitus is a serious and leading health problem. Recent studies demonstrated that glucose intolerance was associated with a higher risk of oral cancer death, beginning in the prediabetic range of glucose intolerance. However, few population-based studies, especially in Asian populations, have addressed these issues or have estimated glucose intolerance status. Aim: We undertook this study with the aim of finding out an association between impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and oral cancer along with finding out prevalence of other risk factors for oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty-five cases and 45 controls were selected for the study. Oral glucose tolerance was performed on subjects who satisfied inclusion criteria and were willing to sign informed consent form. Results: Fifty-three percent of the cases had abnormal glucose tolerance when compared to 31% of the controls. Conclusion: To conclude, hyperglycemia (which includes impaired fasting glucose, IGT and diabetes) increases the risk of oral cancer two-fold, however IGT alone as defined by American Diabetes Association does not appear to play a role.
  1,887 133 -
CASE REPORTS
Mandibular Incisors with Type II Anatomy in a Single Patient: Report of Two Cases
Vinaya Kashid, Hemant Baonerkar
July-December 2015, 1(2):74-78
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.172040  
Mandibular incisors are smallest teeth in the dentition. It is assumed that mandibular incisor is the most easy tooth to treat but sometimes these teeth are difficult to treat because of presence of extra canal which is present more lingually and often misdiagnosed and leads to treatment failure. Success of root canal treatment depends on careful diagnosis of additional canal and thorough debridement of root canal space and obtaining a fluid-tight seal. Thus, this article emphasis on careful management of mandibular incisors with the second canal (type II anatomy) in a single patient.
  1,909 88 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of the efficacy of licorice versus 0.2% chlorhexidine oral rinse on plaque-induced gingivitis: A randomized clinical trial
Prateek Jain, Priyanka Sontakke, Satinder Walia, Pramod Yadav, Gautam Biswas, Diljot Kaur
January-June 2017, 3(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_18_17  
Background: Supragingival plaque control is elementary to the prevention and management of periodontal diseases. Conversely, significant proportions of all individuals fail to practice a high standard of plaque removal. The adjunctive use of chemicals would therefore appear a way of overcoming deficiencies in mechanical tooth cleaning habits. This prospective, randomized positively controlled clinical trial was aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical effects of a licorice oral rinse in the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation in individuals with gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 individuals, 12–15 years of age diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis, were selected and randomly divided into two groups: Group 1: chlorhexidine mouthwash and Group 2: licorice mouthwash. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using the gingival index, the plaque index, and bleeding on probing at baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 4th week. Results: Both chlorhexidine and licorice mouthwash showed a significant reduction in plaque and gingival index scores from baseline to 1st, 2nd, and at 4th week. However, the improvement in plaque and gingival index scores were better in chlorhexidine group than herbal mouthwash. Both mouthwashes were found to be equally effective in reducing bleeding on probing. Conclusion: Unlike chlorhexidine mouthwash, licorice mouthwash was not associated with any discoloration of teeth or unpleasant taste and was effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. However, chlorhexidine still remains a gold standard in reducing plaque, gingivitis, and bleeding on probing.
  1,843 131 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An Overview of the Disorder, Consequences, and Treatment Options
Sameer Pralhad Narkhede, Karthik Shetty, Sushma Sonawane, Nitin Gadhiya, Vivek P Soni
July-December 2015, 1(2):37-43
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.172017  
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a potentially disabling condition characterized by disruptive snoring, repeated episodes of complete or partial pharyngeal obstruction during sleep resulting in nocturnal hypoxemia, frequent arousals, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Among adults, sleep apnea is more common than asthma. Recognized as a separate clinical entity nearly 35 years ago, OSA still remains substantial but frequently ignored public health threat. Although recognized for centuries, its importance for individuals and society has only recently been appreciated. Because individuals with narrow airways and/or craniofacial anomalies may have increased risk for OSA/hypopnea syndrome, dentistry can play a pivotal role in the identification and possible treatment of patients with this syndrome. This article makes an attempt to review some of the basic aspects of this sleep-related disorder, its diagnosis, pathophysiology, various treatment options, and consequences in adults as well as children.
  1,835 132 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Temporomandibular joint space
Aarati S Panchbhai
July-December 2017, 3(2):47-56
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_37_17  
There is a presence of interarticular space between the bony components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), i.e., between articular eminence and glenoid fossa of the temporal bone at the base of the skull and the condylar process of the mandible. The intervening articular disc, together with its attachments, divide the joint into two separate compartments, i.e., upper (superior) and lower (inferior) compartments located above and below the disc, respectively, which are referred as joint spaces. The clinical significance of joint space is of great value; the presence of normal joint space is needed for free movement of condyle along with articular disc. The widening or obliteration of joint space may indicate the involvement of TMJ or its pathology. The joint space configuration is greatly influenced by the glenoid fossa, condyle, and condylar positions within the fossa in TMJ on the right and left sides. The present review work is undertaken primarily including 37 studies from PubMed and Medline databases to reveal the information relating to the joint space, its measurement in normal subjects and TMJ disorder (TMD) patients, its correlation to other factors, and its role in TMDs. The review work would be of help to gain insight to predict the TMDs with respect to joint space morphometrics.
  1,821 95 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Lipomas of Oral and Maxillofacial Region: A Case Series
Priya S Joshi, Madhuri Chougule, Mahesh P Dudanakar, Bhagyalaxmi P Hongal, Neha S Agnihotri
January-June 2015, 1(1):11-14
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.158903  
Objective: Lipomas are the most common soft tissue tumors in the human body, but only 15-20% of cases occur in the oral and maxillofacial region. Hence in this study, we describe the clinical and histopathologic features of eight cases of lipomas in the oro-facial region. Materials and Methods: The cases reported during the period 2009-2014 to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were retrieved for the study as none of the cases of lipomas reported before. Clinical data were collected from patient's records, and cases were reviewed and classified microscopically. Results: Of the eight cases, six were female patients, and two were males; their mean age was 47 years (ranges: 22-76 years). In the present case series, lipomas showed multiple site involvement in the oral and maxillofacial region with the mean size of tumor being 3 cm (ranges 1.5-4.5 cm). Microscopically, three cases were classic lipomas, four were fibrolipomas and one was intramuscular or infiltrating lipoma. All cases had been treated by simple surgical excision, were followed, and no recurrence was reported. Conclusion: Lipomas of oral and maxillofacial region are relatively uncommon tumors. They have no gender as well as the site predilection for occurrence. The most common histological variant was found to be fibrolipoma. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice with a good prognosis.
  1,810 89 -
Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to orthodontic treatment among college students in rural and urban areas of Mysore, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire study
Suma Shekar, BR Chandrashekar, A Bhagyalakshmi, BS Avinash, MS Girish
January-June 2017, 3(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_17_17  
Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) related to orthodontic treatment among college students in rural and urban areas of Mysore, India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted among college students in rural and urban areas of Mysore, India, over 2 months from August to September 2015. The sample size was estimated using nMaster software. One government and one private college each in rural and urban areas of Mysore were selected based on administrative convenience. All eligible participants from these colleges were recruited. A sixteen-item questionnaire was developed and validated. This predesigned and validated, self-administered, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Results: Four hundred and forty-one college students participated in the present study. 89.3% of the participants were aware about malalignment of teeth. The awareness was significantly higher among females and those in urban areas. 39.2% of the study participants expressed willingness to undergo orthodontic treatment even if treatment duration extends up to 1–2 years with no significant difference in relation to gender and area of residence. 14.1% of the study participants have undergone treatment for malalignment of teeth with no significant difference between males and females. However, a significantly higher percentage of participants from urban areas have undergone treatment. Conclusion: The KAP related to orthodontic treatment was significantly higher among females and those in urban areas. This highlights the need to augment orthodontic awareness programs in rural areas.
  1,781 116 -
An In Vivo S tudy of Different Methods of Detection and Quantification of Occlusal Dental Caries in Permanent Molars
Purvi A Mehta, N Vimala, Lalitagauri Mandke
January-June 2015, 1(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.158904  
Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate a new laser fluorescence device, DIAGNOdent for occlusal caries detection and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent with conventional bitewing radiography. And to determine the sensitivity and specificity of DIAGNOdent. Methods: 60 teeth were selected having pit and fissure carious lesions by 2 examiners. After visual and tactile examination of each lesion, DIAGNOdent readings were recorded and bitewing radiographs were taken. Caries removal was done and volume of the cavity was calculated by packing the cavity with composite of specific density. Results: Correlation between DIAGNOdent and visual tactile is 0.398 (P < 0.05); correlation between DIAGNOdent and radiographic method is 0.578 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity is 0.68 % and specificity is 0.37 %. Conclusion: DIAGNOdent is more accurate than visual- tactile and radiographic methods of caries detection. It is a more sensitive system of occlusal caries detection.
  1,740 119 -
Association of Oral Lesions and Immunosuppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients Not Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Pakistan
Saima Qadir, Mohyman Sarfraz, Nadia Naseem, Abdul Hannan Nagi
January-June 2015, 1(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/2393-8692.158902  
Background: Oral lesions, especially oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, necrotizing periodontal conditions and variety of other viral and bacterial infections are essentially presented in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients due to low CD4+ count. Aims: This study was designed to determine various oral clinical and cytological mucosal changes seen in HIV/AIDS patients not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Pakistan and their relation to CD4+ lymphocyte count as no study has been reported yet in our country. Materials and Methods: Patients were clinically examined and staged according to World Health Organization (WHO) staging system. Oral smears, from n = 25 patients not taking ART, were prepared and examined microscopically using hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and Papanicolaou stains. The CD4+ lymphocyte count was determined using flow cytometry. Result: Oral lesions were present in 36% of the patients with chronic periodontitis in 20%, oral candidiasis in 12%, oral pigmentation in 8% and oral ulcers in 4% patients. On cytological examination, fungi were detected in 56% smears. Inflammation was seen in 60% smears, micronuclei in 72%, nuclear atypia in 44% and dysplastic changes in 16% (grade 1 in 12% and grade 2 in 4%) smears. The mean CD4+ lymphocyte count was 338.12 ΁ 127 cells/mm 3 . The CD4+ lymphocyte count was grouped as < 350 cells/mm 3 (Group 1) and > 350 cells/mm 3 (Group 2). Group 1 comprised of n = 15 while Group 2 had n = 10 patients. Most of the oral lesions were seen in CD4+ Group 1 having low CD4+ count. When the cytopathological variables were compared with WHO clinical stages, a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) was observed in the case of pseudomembranous candidiasis clinically and dysplasia and presence of fungi cytologicaly. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of oral lesions as a marker of HIV/AIDS progression and immunosuppression as oral lesions were frequent with low CD4+ count especially < 350 cells/mm 3 .
  1,775 74 -