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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2019
Volume 5 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-35

Online since Monday, June 24, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Gender and oral health in Africa p. 1
OM Etetafia, Clement C Azodo
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_9_18  
Oral health constitutes an important part of general health. Caries and periodontal disease are the most common dental diseases globally. In Africa, the challenges of cancrum oris, acute necrotizing gingivitis, oral cancer, oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS, and maxillofacial trauma are also common especially among the low-socioeconomic communities. Gender is one variable that contributes to oral health status globally. Other variables include race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, attitude to dentistry, level of education, and cultural values. There is an interplay between these variables and they can increase or diminish the effect gender has on oral health. Gender-based health inequities are apparent in early childhood and even in adulthood. Many families provide better nutrition for boys in the interest of maximizing future productivity given that boys are generally seen as breadwinners. The unfortunate practice of son preference, which occurs worldwide in different levels of severity, often leads young girls being neglected and therefore more likely to develop poor oral health, which is then left untreated. Good oral health has been associated with positive oral health beliefs and stability of beliefs. Women tend to have better and more stable oral health beliefs. This may contribute largely to why women have better oral health in modern society. Gender influence on oral health status is appreciable especially in an economically challenged region of Africa. For optimum oral health, efforts should be geared toward appropriate health care reforms, education of female children, elimination of gender discrimination, and implementation of oral health policies.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Microscopic evaluation of the effect of low-level laser therapy on platelet-rich fibrin: A light microscopic histological study p. 6
Anurag Bhatnagar, Mallanagouda B Patil, Shobha Prakash
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_5_19  
Background: This study evaluated and compared the concentration of platelets/leukocytes, fibrin matrix, and its distribution in nonlaser-treated platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and laser-treated PRF. Recently, PRF has been used for regeneration of soft and hard tissue, in periodontics and oral surgery. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for many therapeutic purpose of tissue healing. The use of PRF treated with LLLT has shown to enhance better healing potential. Materials and Methods: In this study, we have selected five healthy controls and collected 10 ml of blood from them. All blood samples were centrifuged, and from each blood sample, two PRF clots were formed. A total of ten samples obtained were divided into two groups. Each group had five samples. One group was without LLL treatment (Group I) and other was treated with LLL (Group II). All the ten samples were processed for light microscopic examination. Results: In both the groups, the PRF membrane showed a similar macroscopic structure and microscopic distribution. In the buffy coat region, the concentration of platelets–leukocyte aggregate was little higher in Group I. In Group II, the distribution pattern of fibrin clot was slightly different with that of Group I. Conclusion: The Choukroun's PRF concept leads to specific clot architecture with platelets and fibrin meshwork, especially in the buffy coat region. Changes in the PRF components with LLLT may have an affect the healing and regenerative of soft and hard tissues.
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Sound levels in conservative dentistry and endodontics clinic p. 11
Sumita Bhagwat, Pradnya Hirlekar, Leena Padhye
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_6_19  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sound levels generated in dental clinics of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics. Materials and Methods: A decibel-meter with digital readout was used to measure sound levels at different intervals at chairside and center of preclinical laboratory and undergraduate and postgraduate clinics. At chairside, recordings were made with the meter held near the operator's ear when only suction was being used, with the slow speed micromotor handpiece and while suction was used alongside the air rotor handpiece. The recordings at the center of the clinic were made with at least five operators working. Minimum and maximum readings during a 3 min interval were recorded. Results: The tabulated readings were statistically analysed by ANOVA and Tukey HSD comparison test. Conclusion: The authors concluded that the mean sound levels in the working clinics ranged from 54 dB[A] to 83.3 dB[A]. These were within the recommended range for dental equipment. With suction and high speed handpiece combination, the Postgraduate clinic was significantly noisier than the Undergraduate clinic at several time periods. Sound level measurements reported here raise some concerns for dentists' hearing health. The use of suction with and without accompanying handpiece use can produce noise sufficient to damage the user's hearing.
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Taste function and salivary analysis in patients with oral sensorial complaints p. 17
Neelima Gupta, Rachana Rai, Seema Garg, HC Taneja, MS Bhatia, Lakshmi Vaid
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_18_19  
Background: Taste dysfunction is a troublesome condition which causes subjective discomfort, impairs appetite, and leads to decrease in food intake. Patients often present to otorhinolaryngologists with a complaint of burning sensation in the mouth and associated taste dysfunction. We sought to study the taste dysfunction and do salivary analysis in these patients because studies reporting objective evidence of taste dysfunction in patients with such oral sensorial complaints (OSCs) are scarce. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with OSCs and taste disturbances; and 35 healthy controls with no oral complaints and no taste disturbances were studied. Objective taste score was calculated using impregnated filter paper strips. Whole unstimulated salivary flow, salivary ions estimation (Na+ and K+), and psychometric profile assessment using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 questionnaire and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale questionnaire were done. Results: The mean taste score in the OSC group was 20.80 ± 2.753, and in controls, it was 28.11 ± 2.564, showing a statistically significant difference. About 54% of the cases had decreased taste function. The whole unstimulated salivary flow rate (mL/min) in cases was 0.58 ± 0.10, and in controls, it was 0.78 ± 0.73; difference being statistically not significant (P = 0.066). Salivary ions showed higher levels in cases. The psychometric profile showed a higher rate of depression and stress in cases and a higher oral health impact score. Conclusion: We concluded that there is objective evidence of taste aberration in patients with OSCs. The subjective grading of reported taste dysfunction did not correlate with the objective taste scores, and there was an increased incidence of depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with OSCs and taste dysfunction.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Management of maxillary first molar with six canals p. 23
Pritesh Kisanlal Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_7_19  
Thorough cleaning and achieving a complete three dimensional seal of the root canal system is essential for success of endodontic treatment. Maxillary first molar is the tooth with most complex root canal morphology. Usually, it has three roots with three or four root canals. This case report presents a case of maxillary first molar with an unusual anatomy of having six root canals. This case was managed successfully with the help of dental operating microscope.
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Tackling mandibular prognathism with evidence-based surgical orthodontics: A paradigm shift p. 26
Vivek P Soni, Akhil A Patil, Mikisha K Shetty, Vibha R Bhatia
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_10_19  
The esthetic outcome of orthognathic surgery has always been of utmost importance to patient as well as the surgeon. With innovations in orthognathic surgical procedures, the addition of soft tissue prediction is a boon to orthodontists and oral surgeons together. The evolution in treatment planning from mere radiographic–cephalometric tracings to simulated surgeries has been a tremendous and path-breaking journey for the field. Three-dimensional printing, soft tissue analysis, splint fabrication, stereolithographic models, rapid prototyping, and various such adjuncts have thereon revolutionized surgical procedures and treatment predictions.
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Lichen planus pigmentosus: A report of two cases p. 32
Hena Shaw, Aravinda Konidena, Abhilash Malhotra, Nishant Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_21_18  
Lichen planus pigmentosus is a condition characterized by persistent and asymptomatic slaty-gray pigmentation, predominantly in the face. Two patients, aged 11-year-old female and 35-year-old male, reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology with burning sensation on taking spicy foods. On examination, only extensive symmetric brownish-black pigmentation of the buccal mucosa was observed bilaterally. The workup and management of these cases are presented along with the relevant review of literature.
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