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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2020
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-31

Online since Saturday, May 16, 2020

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

The role of estrogen receptors α, β, γ in oral squamous cell carcinoma and a comparative perspective of squamous cell carcinoma p. 1
Eesha Thakare, Minal Chaudhary, Amol Gadbail
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_3_20  
The “nuclear receptors” (NRs) belong to the huge group of transcription factors, triggered with the help of diverse signal molecules. Various physiological (or pathological) conditions responding to metabolite, hormonal, and nutrient signals lead to the activation of specific gene expression with the help of large number of members of NR superfamily. The role of hormone estrogen as an oncogenic agent is well illustrated in hormone-sensitive carcinomas that include ovarian, colon, endometrial, prostate, lung, and breast. This is the first review on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) pertaining to Estrogen receptors (ER) like α, β and γ study published in PubMed. For hormone ligand action in head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) specifically, experiments in vivo and in vitro studies support a probable biological mechanism. As per the search in PubMed (search words ERs, OSCC, HNCs), since the first article till date, a review pertaining to the existence and role of ERs in OSCC was formulated since 1981 till 2018. This is the first review on receptor level genomics in OSCC for three ERα, β, and γ. We have also discussed ERγ, which has been reported in very few reports. The prognostic significance of ERα, β, γ in comparison with other squamous cell carcinoma is tabled.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Gender determination using velar morphology p. 8
Aishwarya Sanjay Awati, Naveen Srinivas, Praveen Ramdurg, Surekha Puranik
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_36_19  
Aim: Aim of the study was to assess the various shapes of soft palate and determine the gender using velar morphology. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised of Digital Lateral cephalograms of 120 normal individuals which consisted of 60 males and 60 females between the age group of 11 to 45 from the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology PMNM Dental College and Hospital Bagalkot. The velar morphology was examined and classified into 6 types according to you et al, the associated velar length, velar width was measured. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the association between variants of soft palate with gender. Results: Six types of velar morphologies were observed. In this study leaf shape (type 1) had highest incidence rate among the subjects i.e; 50%, followed by rat tail (type 2) i.e; 27.5%. S shaped showed the lowest incidence. Velar length and width was found significantly greater in males than females. Conclusion: It was found that gender determination can be done using length, width and morphology of the soft palate.
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Assessment of cross-cultural competency among dental interns: An exploratory study p. 12
Thounaojam Leimaton, Simarpreet Singh, Manu Batra, Deeksha Gijwani, Sakshi Shukla, Parul Mangal
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_2_20  
Aims: The study aims to quantity the variation in dental interns' self perceived levels toward cultural competence. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 84 dental interns from dental college during December 2019. Subjects and Methods: 84 dental interns were participated from college during the month of December for this study. Data were collected through interview using pretested and prevalidated form, consisting of demographic variables such as age, gender, and community with cross-cultural care survey that concerning about the ability to deliver diverse patient's care. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using SPSS software, and mean, standard deviation, paired t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test were applied for the analysis of the data, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: It showed that males had significantly higher mean ± SD knowledge (3.29 ± 0.60), skill (3.55 ± 0.52), and attitude (3.32 ± 0.51) scores, respectively, as compared to females; however, while comparing the various domains on the basis of religion factor, the difference was not found statistically significant. Conclusions: The current study suggests that cultural competence knowledge, skill, and attitude of the study participants were inadequate. Hence, there is a need to conduct training programs for interns to enlighten them on the sensitive issue of cross-cultural competency in oral health services.
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Oral leukoplakia and its malignant transformation as a diagnostic tool in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A retrospective clinicopathological study p. 16
Rohan Sachdev, Kriti Garg, Garima Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_33_19  
Context: Oral leukoplakia is considered as potentially malignant disease and oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in various countries. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the rate of malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Settings and Design: A total of 165 patients were included in the study in 2-month duration. Subjects and Methods: Clinically and histopathologically confirmed cases of oral leukoplakia and other premalignant disorders were retrospectively studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included calculation of percentages. Data distribution was assessed for normality using Shapiro–Wilk test. Categorical data were compared using Chi-square test. Results: Among 165 cases, 55.46% of males were affected as compared to females and mostly patients of both sexes were of 40–50 years of age. A total of 140 oral leukoplakia cases were present with 59.28% of males and 40.71% of females, whereas only 25 other premalignant cases were reported with 44% of males and 56% of females. 69.28% and 52% of oral leukoplakia and other premalignant cases were involved in buccal mucosa. Histopathological analysis stated that out of 140 oral leukoplakia cases, 39.28% were present with malignant transformation and P value was 0.0007. Conclusions: Malignant changes of oral leukoplakia play an important role in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma and males are more at risk to develop malignancy; therefore, close observation, early diagnosis, appropriate treatment plan, and prognosis are required to prevent malignant transformation.
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A study on the pattern of oral cavity involvement in various dermatoses at tertiary care center p. 20
Pragya Ashok Nair, Namrata Bhavsar, Dhruv Patel, Jinal Tandel
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_1_20  
Introduction: Oral mucosa is in direct continuity with the skin externally and with the mucosa of oropharynx and nasopharynx internally. Dermatological diseases may involve the mucosa which can be an early predictor of any underlying disease. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional observational study, conducted between May and October 2018 after institutional ethical clearance. Patients presenting with dermatoses involving oral cavity alone or with other sites belonging to all age groups and either sexes were included. Cutaneous, oral cavity, and systemic examination was done along with other relevant investigations which were required, and detailed examination was noted in a prestructured pro forma. Results: Out of 52 cases of oral cavity lesions, 55.76% were female and 40.38% were in 19–40 years of age group. Complaints of pain and burning sensation in the oral cavity were present in 48.07% of cases. Majority of patients (55.76%) had lesions over lips and buccal mucosa. Lichen planus was the most common clinical diagnosis seen in 40.38% of cases followed by herpes labialis in 17.30% of cases. Other mucosal sites involved were genital mucosa in 11.53%, followed by conjunctiva in 1.92% of patients. Hypertension was seen in 11.53% of cases. Discussion: Various dermatological disorders of diverse etiologies involve oral cavity. Any symptom or sign in the oral cavity should not be neglected because that can be an early predictor of any underlying disease. Routine intraoral examination should be incorporated in all dermatosis as the oral manifestations can represent preliminary signs or can coexist with the diseases. Conclusions: Thus, prompt diagnosis and management can minimize disease progression and improve the quality of life of an individual. Limitation: Small sample size was the limitation of our study.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Efficacy of lesion sterilization and tissue repair using different materials in primary molars: A case series p. 26
Astha Jaikaria, Seema Thakur, Amolkumar Lokade
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_34_19  
The concept of lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR) therapy involves the use of a triple antibiotic mixture in a suitable vehicle, which is used to disinfect the root canal systems. This series highlights three cases where pulp therapy using modified 3 Mix antibiotic paste and chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and zinc oxide-eugenol paste was attempted in primary molars with or without pulpal and periapical involvement. Successful clinical and radiographic assessment after 6 months advocates LSTR therapy as an alternative option to conventional pulp therapy.
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Posterior composite restoration with stamp technique p. 29
Huma Shaikh, Dipti Choksi, Barkha Idnani
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_30_19  
Occlusal discrepancy after direct restorations often leads to discomfort to the patients. Newer methods are developed to overcome the previous problems and to reduce the time required. A stamp technique is proposed which is an easy procedure to recreate accurate occlusal topography for a direct composite resin restoration effectively and efficiently. This technique is indicated when the preoperative anatomy of the tooth is intact and not destructed or lost due to the carious lesion.
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